The Referencing@Portsmouth interactive guide helps you to reference your sources correctly. Please read our overview page before using this service.

The Referencing@Portsmouth interactive guide helps you reference sources correctly based on published style guides and local practice.

Which Reference Style Should I Use?

Most departments at Portsmouth use the APA 6th ed. style. Exceptions include:

  • If writing about law, or for a qualifying law degree, and asked for footnotes use the OSCOLA style
  • The School of Pharmacy & Biomedical Sciences uses the Vancouver style
  • History units taught in the School of Social, Historical & Literary Studies use the Chicago 16th ed. style. Guidance is available from The Chicago Manual of Style Online.
  • Biology related subjects use a slightly altered version of the APA style

Check your course/unit handbook if unsure.

Select a reference source from the dropdown and optionally a specific style & media.


or browse the Table of Contents

Why reference?

  • To give intellectual credit to your source
  • To help your reader recover your source easily
  • To avoid being accused of plagiarism

Top Tips

  • Do not list sources that are merely mentioned in the work you have seen
  • Only include in your reference list what you refer to in your text
  • There will not be guidance for every type or variation of a source - if you need help, contact us
  • See our Referencing Guides for information on using the styles and more examples.