The Referencing@Portsmouth interactive guide helps you to reference your sources correctly. Please read our overview page before using this service.

The Referencing@Portsmouth interactive guide helps you to reference your sources correctly, based on published style guides and local practice where applicable.

What Style Should I Use?

Most departments at Portsmouth use the APA 6th ed. referencing style. Exceptions include:

  • If writing about law and asked to use footnotes or if writing for a qualifying law degree use the OSCOLA referencing style
  • The School of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences uses the Vancouver referencing style
  • History units taught in the School of Social, Historical and Literary Studies use the Chicago 16th ed. referencing style. Guidance is available from The Chicago Manual of Style Online.
  • Biology related subjects use a slightly altered version of the APA referencing style

Check your course or unit handbook if unsure.

Guidance for those who still need the APA 5th ed.

Select a reference source from the dropdown and optionally a specific style & media.


or browse the Table of Contents

Why reference?

  • To give intellectual credit to your source
  • To help your reader recover your source easily
  • To avoid being accused of plagiarism

Top Tips

  • Do not list sources that are merely mentioned in the work you have seen
  • Only include in your reference list what you refer to in your text
  • There will not be guidance for every type or variation of a source - if you need help, contact us
  • See our Referencing Guides for information on using the styles and more examples.
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Disclaimer:  This guide aims to help you reference your sources correctly. However, your department or lecturer may prefer you to reference your sources differently. Always follow the requirements of your department or lecturer. External visitors are welcome to use this guide, but note that your institution's requirements may differ from those used by The University of Portsmouth.