The Referencing@Portsmouth interactive guide helps you to reference your sources correctly. Please read our overview page before using this service.
Which Reference Style Should I Use?
Most departments at Portsmouth use the APA 6th ed. style. Exceptions include:
- If writing about law, or for a qualifying law degree, and asked for footnotes use the OSCOLA style
- The School of Pharmacy & Biomedical Sciences uses the Vancouver style
- History units taught in the School of Social, Historical & Literary Studies use the Chicago 16th ed. style. Guidance is available from The Chicago Manual of Style Online.
- Biology related subjects use a slightly altered version of the APA style
Check your course/unit handbook if unsure.
Guidance for those who still need the APA 5th ed.
or browse the Table of Contents
- To give intellectual credit to your source
- To help your reader recover your source easily
- To avoid being accused of plagiarism
- Do not list sources that are merely mentioned in the work you have seen
- Only include in your reference list what you refer to in your text
- There will not be guidance for every type or variation of a source - if you need help, contact us
- See our Referencing Guides for information on using the styles and more examples.