The Referencing@Portsmouth interactive guide helps you to reference your sources correctly. Please read our overview page before using this service.

The Referencing@Portsmouth interactive guide helps you reference sources correctly based on published style guides and local practice.

Which Reference Style Should I Use?

Most departments at Portsmouth use the APA 6th ed. style. APA 7th edition has been published, but students using APA must continue to use the 6th edition. Do not use the 7th edition.

Exceptions include:

  • If writing about law, or for a qualifying law degree, and asked for footnotes use the OSCOLA style
  • The School of Pharmacy & Biomedical Sciences uses the Vancouver style
  • History units taught in the School of Area Studies, History, Politics and Literature use the Chicago 16th ed. style. Guidance is available from The Chicago Manual of Style Online.
  • Biology related subjects use a slightly altered version of the APA style

Check your course/unit handbook if unsure.

Select a reference source from the dropdown and optionally a specific style & media.


or browse the Table of Contents

Why reference?

  • To give intellectual credit to your source
  • To help your reader recover your source easily
  • To avoid being accused of plagiarism

Top Tips

  • Do not list sources that are merely mentioned in the work you have seen
  • Only include in your reference list what you refer to in your text
  • There will not be guidance for every type or variation of a source - if you need help, contact us
  • See our Referencing Guides for information on using the styles and more examples.