Report [from Electronic source using APA 5th ed.]

Overview

If documents found on the internet are clearly facsimiles of books in print format they should be referenced as e-books. Useful clues to look for are ISBNs or a PDF format with clear publication details and original covers. This format covers reports from the government and other public bodies, and market research reports from online resources such as Key Note, Mintel, and Passport GMID. However, where a publication is not presented as a single document, but broken down into separate HTML pages or PDF files, it is better to treat these as web pages, and reference them individually.

Where there is a choice of format, the PDF version may be easier to reference, and the orginal pagination can be used to pinpoint sources in the in-text citation. If in doubt, use the standard form below.

Although you must give the full Internet address (or URL) in your reference list, you do not show this in the body of your essay. Your in-text reference must match the start of the reference as it appears in your reference list. Use the author if your reference has one; otherwise use the first few words of the title.

Standard Form

Author, Intials. (year). Title. (Series title and number - if there is one). Retrieved Month day, year, from Internet address

Examples

As a webpage

Harris, J., & Grace, S. (1999). A question of evidence? Investigating and prosecuting rape in the 1990s (Home Office Research Study 196). Retrieved July 19, 2004, from the UK Home Office website: www.homeoffice.gov.uk/rds/pdfs/hors196.pdf

Scientific Committee on Tobacco and Health. (1998). Report of the Scientific Committee on Tabacco and Health: Part one: The scale of the smoking problem. Retrieved February 25, 2009 from the the Official Documents website: http://www.archive.official-documents.co.uk/document/doh/tobacco/part-1.htm

As an e-book

Harris, J., & Grace, S. (1999). A question of evidence? Investigating and prosecuting rape in the 1990s (Home Office Research Study 196) [Electronic version]. London: Home Office.

Key Note report

Airlines business report. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.keynote.co.uk

Mintel report (no author)

Digital cameras UK May 2012: Competitive context. (2012). Retrieved from http://academic.mintel.com/display/624107/

Mintel report (with author)

Wisson, C. (2012). Chocolate confectionary: Issues in the market. Retrieved from http://academic.mintel.com/display/590114/

Passport GMID report

Organic packaged food in Finland: Category briefing. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.portal.euromonitor.com

Citation in Text

.. difficulty of prosecuting rape where the parties are well-known to one another (Harris & Grace, 1999, p. 36) is due ...

The lung cancer mortality rate for men had fallen more than for women (Scientific Committee on Tobacco and Health, 1998, para. 1.13) as a result of the Health of the Nation strategy ...

Notes

  • If no date appears on the item you are trying to reference, insert (n.d.) where you would normally give the year.
  • Note that in the second example above, the report is published in sections as separate HTML pages. The example relates to the relevant section. If you cite more than one section, you would have to create two entries in your reference list, and the dates would be 1998a and 1998b.
  • If there is a series title, it should be capitalised.