Blog post [from Electronic source using APA 5th ed.]


A blog is much like a general web page. It will probably have an author and a title for the posting. If it does not have an author, and you have to use the title of the posting in the author postion, it should be enclosed in quotation marks when citing in the text. The assumption is that you will reference an individual posting, and that if using more than one posting you will reference each one separately. Make sure you give a URL for the posting you are referencing, rather than the home page of the blog. Typically blogs have personal authors and dates of posting.

Occasionally blogs are written pseudonymously or anonymously. If there is no author, place the title in the author position. Do not use Anonymous unless the author is specifically so designated. APA gives no guidancefor pseudonymous authors. You will see from the examples below the same posting using the pseudonym of the author, and also treating the pseudonym as though the posting were anonymous, which effectively it is. Consider whether the authority of the posting is diminished by the author's anonymity or disguise.

There are examples below from Twitter and Facebook. These sources are not covered by the APA style manual. Please check your department's policy before referencing these sources and check with your lecturer before using this suggestion which is based on APA style. Include the author name as written e.g. Barack Obama, and alphabetise under the first name given i.e. B, not O. To locate the Internet address of an individual post, click on the date and time stamp beneath (or next to) the post in question to be taken to the individual status update page with its own URL. Include the whole Twitter post for the title. However, Facebook updates might be quite long, so use a truncated version of the post.

Standard Form

Author, Initials. (year). Title. Retrieved month day, year, from Internet address


Marketing. (2007). Retrieved June 5, 23007, from

Stop & account, then scan, photocopy & email. (2007). Retrieved June 5, 2007, from


BBC News. (2013, February 12). Are enough women in Britain getting top jobs? [Facebook update]. Retrieved from


Barack Obama. (2013, January 21). We, the people, declare today that the most evident of truths-that all of us are created equal-is the star that guides us still [Twitter post]. Retrieved from

BBC Breaking News. (2013, February 7). 92 new #flood defence schemes will be built in England this year, better protecting 64,000 homes, @DefraGovUK says [Twitter post]. Retreived from

Bystander. (2007). Once bitten ... . Retrieved June 5, 2007, from


Once bittten ... .(2007). Retrieved June 5, 2007, from

Maharg, P. (2007). ICE3, day three. Retrieved June 5, 2007, from

Citation in Text

The use of the phrase "design multinational and multicultural perspectives that trigger cognitive dissonance" shows that Maharg (2007) has adopted the jargon of the discipline ...

A pseudonymous blogger ("Marketing", 2007) suggests that word of mouth is the most effective route for solicitors to attract criminal clients ...

President Obama delivered his second inaugural address, and focused on equality (Barack Obama, 2013).


  • If no author is named on the item you are trying to reference, move the title to the start of the reference and follow that by the year of publication. Do not use Anon. or Anonymous unless the publication actually says that.