Streaming video [from Electronic source using APA 5th ed.]


This includes streamed media from BBC iPlayer, 4oD, YouTube, or Box of Broadcasts (BoB).

Webpages can be volatile and subject to unannounced change. Therefore, it is important include the internet address (or URL) for the webpage you accessed, as it may not be at that location when your work is assessed. A URL (Uniform Resource Locator) is the technical term for a webpage address. URLs can change, for example if the material you are viewing is generated 'on-the-fly' using content management software. URLs from these sites may be only viewable at the time of retrieval.

Whenever possible the URL you give should be a stable URL and link directly to the webpage itself. A stable URL, also known as a 'permament link' will not be generated 'on-the-fly' and is more likely to remain accessible. To check if a link to a URL is stable, paste the link into the address bar of an Internet browser to make sure that it works. If there is no stable URL for the item, give the homepage e.g.

Although you must give the full Internet address (or URL) in your reference list, you do not show this in the body of your essay. Your in-text reference must match the start of the reference as it appears in your reference list. Use the author if your reference has one; otherwise use the first few words of the title.

Standard Form

Surname of primary contributor, Initials. (Role of primary contributor). (year, month day). Title [Webcast]. Retrieved month day, year, from Internet address


Coppers [Webcast]. (2012, February 22). Retrieved February 25, 2012, from

Library of Congress exhibit explores early Americas [Webcast]. (2008). Retrieved June 6, 2008, from

Marketing mix: Place strategies [Webcast]. (n.d.). Retrieved November 4, 2010, from

Howitt, S. (Director). (2012, February 23). Lost kingdoms of Africa [Webcast]. Retrieved February 24, 2012, from

Lachmann, M (Director). (2011, December, 26). Wonders of the universe [Webcast]. Retrieved January 13, 2012, from

Citation in Text

... explores the rise and fall of Bunyoro (Howitt, 2012).

"Coppers" (2012) looks at the reality of policing in a large UK city ...

... explains how the Earth's resources have been recycled through the ages (Lachmann, 2011) ...

... early American objects ("Library of Congress", 2008) exhibit many characteristics ...

... place strategies are an important aspect of marketing ("Marketing mix", n.d.) ...


  • If no date is shown on the document, use n.d.
  • If the author is not given, begin your reference with the title of the document.
  • If a document is part of a large website such as that for a university or government department, give the name of the parent organization and the relevant department before the internet address:

Alexander, J., & Tate, M. A. (2001). Evaluating web resources. Retrieved August 21, 2001, from Widener University, Wolfgram Memorial Library website:

  • The title of the YouTube video has been used as the main identifier, as the person(s) posting the item may not be the creators of it.