Image from a database [from Electronic source using APA 5th ed.]

Overview

This source is not covered by the APA style manual. Check with your lecturer before using this suggestion which is based on APA style.

Please read this in conjunction with the page on images from various sources for general advice on dealing with images which are not your own work. This is particularly appropriate for work which includes several images; where only a very few images are used, you may prefer to include the sources in your reference list, and cite the source in your text.

Remember, what you are citing is a often a photograph of a work of art, and not the work of art itself. Strictly speaking the author is the photographer rather than the original artist, but as these photographers may not be personally credited, and for clarity, we suggest you take the original artist as the "author". The reference should, however, attempt to include the date of the image (the photograph) and that of the original work which is represented by the photograph.

Note that the figure caption may be the same or similar to the title of the work (given in italics).

Standard Form

In a list of figures

Figure number of figure. Figure caption. Original creator's surname, Intials. (year image created). Title of the work. Retrieved month day, year, from the name of the database.

In a reference list

Original creator's surname. (year image published). Title of the work. Retrieved month day, year, from the name of the database. (Original work dated year of creation)

Examples

In a list of figures:

Figure 4. The seine boat, 1904, oil on canvas 114.5x157.5cm, private collection. Forbes, S.A. (n.d.). The seine boat. Retrieved July 31, 2009, from the Bridgeman Education database.

Figure 5. The ransom, 1860-62. Millais, J.E. (n.d.). The ransom. Retrieved September 30, 2009, from the Artstor database.

Figure 6. Composition C (No.III) with red, yellow and blue, 1935. Mondrian, P. (2007). Composition C (No.III) with red, yellow and blue. Retrieved August 20, 2009 from the Tate web site: http://www.tate.org.uk/servlet/ViewWork?workid=9602&searchid=15835

In a reference list:

Forbes, S.A. (n.d.). The seine boat. Retrieved July 31, 2009, from the Bridgeman Education database. (Original work dated 1904)

Millais, J.E. (n.d.). The ransom. Retrieved September 30, 2009, from the Artstor database. (Original work dated 1860-1862)

Mondrian, P. (2007). Composition C (No.III) with red, yellow and blue. Retrieved August 20, 2009 from the Tate web site: http://www.tate.org.uk/servlet/ViewWork?workid=9602&searchid=15835 (Original work dated 1935)

Citation in Text

Forbes (n.d) displays an assured technique ...

This work (Millais, n.d.) displays features characteristic of the compositional style ...

In this case (Mondrian, 2007) we see evidence ...

Notes

  • By database we mean a subscription database specifically created for delivering images to users, not web sites for the general public.
  • The examples above of citing an image of a work by Mondrian are not derived from a database as such (though the web site behaves in a similar way). The style is based on that for a webpage. Your reference should include the Internet address (or URL).
  • Many databases will not quote the date the image was created - use the standard abbreviation (n.d.) as in the examples.
  • If you have multiple images from the same "author" with the same date, add a, b, c (2007a, 2007b, 2007c, etc.) to the date in the reference list entry and arrange in title order.
  • If you have seen the original of a work of art, and are not including an image of it, you only need to cite it in your text.
  • Where information about the medium, e.g. oil on canvas, dimensions of the work and the gallery/museum that houses the work are given, include this information in the figure caption.
  • If no date appears on the item you are trying to reference, insert (n.d.) where you would normally give the year.