CD-ROM (compact disc, read-only memory) [from Electronic source using APA 5th ed.]


This source is not covered by the APA style manual. Check with your lecturer before using this suggestion which is based on APA style.

The content can be varied, and partake of various formats. The medium, however, is the same as for sound recordings. The following guidance is therefore based on APA style for more than one type of material. A similar style could be used for DVD-ROM.

Standard Form

Author, Initial. (year). Title [CD-ROM - or DVD-ROM]. Place of publication: Publisher.


Homeyer, J. & Mikolajczyk, S. (2004). Techniques of crime scene investigation [CD-ROM]. [Boca Raton, FL]: CRC.

Office for National Statistics. (1996). 30 years of Regional Trends [CD-ROM]. London: Author.

Citation in Text

... various concepts are covered (Homeyer & Mikolajczyk, 2004) which the investigator ...

... shows a rapid increase in health service personnel (Office for National Statistics, 1996) over the period ...


  • CD-ROMs may not have a personal or corporate author, in which case place the title (italicized) in the author place.
  • In the first example, it was not possible to identify the place of publication from the physical item, but it was obtained from another source, so is included in square brackets [].
  • In the second example, "Regional Trends" only has capital letters because it refers to a separate print publication, of which this is an electronic compilation.