Personal communication [from Direct communication using APA 5th ed.]


Examples include a letter, memo, unarchived online forum, and telephone conversation.

Personal communication cannot be recovered by the reader and therefore is not included in the reference list. However, they are cited in the text. Give the initials and surname of the communicator as well as the exact date of the communication (as exact as possible).

A letter on the Internet is recoverable using the Internet address (or URL) and should be referenced as a webpage

Standard Form

Not applicable

Citation in Text

… and this point was conceded (J. Bloggs, personal communication, August 22, 2001).

Peter Smith stated (personal communication, October 8, 2006) that the work would ...