Computer program or programming language [from Electronic source using APA 5th ed.]


Reference entries are not necessary for standard off-the-shelf software and programming languages, such as Microsoft Word, Excel, Java, Adobe Photoshop, and even SAS and SPSS. In-text, give the proper name of the software, along with the version number. Do provide reference entries in your bibliography for specialized software or computer programs with limited distribution.

Standard Form

Author, Initials. (year). Title of software or program (Version number) [Computer software/ Programming language]. Place of publication: Publisher.


Miller, M. E. (1993). The Interactive Tester (Version 4.0) [Computer software]. Westminster, CA: Psytek Services.

Citation in Text

The definition give by the research tool in Microsoft Word 2003 states that ...

This version (Miller, 1993) shows subtle variations ...



  • Please note that there may be no way of indicating page or paragraph when referencing in-text.