Case: EU [from Print source using APA 5th ed.]


Because the situation regarding legal references is complex, and only US law is covered in the APA Manual, the following guidance is based on the system recommended by the Institute of Criminal Justice Studies. It should not be followed by any student submitting work to the Law Department of Portsmouth Business School, and students working in other departments should consult their lecturers.

The preferred source for cases from the European Court of Justice (ECJ) or the Court of First Instance (CFI) is the European Court Reports (ECR). ECJ cases are reported in the ECR I series (volume 1) and CFI cases are reported in the ECR II series (volume 2). The series numbers are attached to the page number with a dash and follow the abbreviated series title e.g. ECR I-4921, ECR II-669.

If an ECR citation is not available, you may cite the Common Market Law Reports (CMLR). If the case is in any UK law reports series, you can cite these using the same order of preference as for UK cases i.e. the Official Law Reports (Appeal Cases, Queen’s Bench etc.), the Weekly Law Reports (WLR) and then the All England Reports (All ER). For unreported cases cite the relevant notice in the Official Journal of the European Communities (OJ). If the case has not been reported in the OJ, give the case number, case name, court and date of judgement.

Cases since 1989 have been numbered according to whether they have come from the European Court of Justice (prefix C) or the Court of First Instance (prefix T). Cases before 1989 have no prefix at all. The case number is cited before the party names with no punctuation between them.

Standard Form

Cases are not included in reference lists at all. However, on the first mention of a case a full citation is given stating:

Case initial designator if applicable (designated as C if European Court of Justice T if Court of First instance since 1989)-case no Parties to the case *[year case reported] or (year case reported) Volume case reported in* Publication case reported in (usually abbreviated) Page or case number (depending on publication).

*The style in which the year is shown differs depending on the particular publication involved. Square brackets are used when the date is essential in order to find the right volume. Round brackets are used when the volumes are numbered sequentially from the first issue and the date is therefore not needed to find the case.

Thereafter the names of the parties italicised an accepted / recognised abbreviation of it can be used without the other details.

Abbreviations for law reports can be particularly puzzling. If you have specific queries, feel free to contact Linda Jones, Law and Criminology Librarian, e-mail:


Case T-107/04 Aluminium Silicon Mill Products GmbH v Council of the European Union [2007] ECR II- 669.

First references to cases:

Case C-415/93 Union royale belge des societes de football association ASBL v Jean-Marc Bosman [1995] ECR I-4921.

Citation in Text

Later references to the above cases would simply use the case names:

as stated in Union royale belge des societes de football association ASBL v Jean-Marc Bosman...

...Aluminium Silicon Mill Products GmbH v Council of the European Unionrefers to the earlier case of ...


  • Case names are always in italics. If you wish to pinpoint the exact location of a particular quotation or reference add "at p17" or "at para 3" depending upon the conventions of the particular publication you are using.