Television: single episode from a series [from Audio visual source using APA 5th ed.]


Use the reference format of an edited book. The scriptwriter takes the place of the author, followed by the director and the words "Television series episode" are added in square brackets after the title of the programme. Place the producer of the series in the editor position.

Standard Form

Name of primary contributor - the Writer, Initials and then the Director, Initials. (Role of primary contributor). (year). Title of programme [Television series episode]. In Initials. Name of Producer/s (Producer), Title of series. City of origin – where the programme was made and released: Name of television channel.


Fraser, R. (Writer), & Geoghegan, S. (Director). (2003). Eyes wide open [Television series episode]. In P. Goodman (Producer), Holby City. London: BBC1.

Schama, S. (Writer & Presenter), (2001). Revolutions [Television series episode]. In M. Ibeji (Producer) & M. Davidson (Executive Producer), A History of Britain. London: BBC2.

Citation in Text

This episode (Fraser & Geoghegan, 2003), like so many others ...

Schama (2001) dramatically presents ...


  • If details of the writer are not available, begin the reference with the director.
  • Tracing the details needed for a reference after the broadcast can be difficult. The best source of information is TRILT (Television and Radio Index for Learning and Teaching) which gives details of television and radio programmes schedules from 2001 onwards for over 330 different channels plus a substantial selection of terrestrial television programmes back to 1995.