Television programme: published recording [from Audio visual source using APA 5th ed.]


This source is not covered by the APA style manual. Check with your lecturer before using this suggestion which is based on APA style.

A commercial distribution of a programme may vary from the broadcast version, so if this is what you have seen, it is appropriate to reference it as such. This guidance follows patterns suggested by APA for other materials. In order that the source should be recoverable, it is more appropriate to give the publisher of the DVD or videocassette rather than the production company or broadcaster of the originally broadcast programme.

The director or producer, or both, take the place of the author and the words "Television broadcast " are added in square brackets after the title of the programme. The format of the recording is given in square brackets following this.

Standard Form

Name of primary contributor - the Director or Producer, or both, Initials. (Role of primary contributor). (year). Title of programme [Television broadcast][Format - DVD or videocassette]. Place of publicaton: Publisher.


Dicks, T. (1985). Oliver Twist [Television broadcast] [DVD]. Burbank, CA: Warner Home Video.

Hall, D. (2005). A tribute to Fred Dibnah [Television broadcast] [DVD]. London: Contender.

Citation in Text

Alexander Baron's dramatisation of the story (Dicks, 1985) follows the original fairly closely except ...

Dibnah refering to himself as a "back-street mechanic" (Hall, 2005) was perhaps a little ...