DVD or video recording [from Audio visual source using APA 5th ed.]


This source is not covered by the APA style manual. Check with your lecturer before using this suggestion which is based on APA style.

These notes refer to videos and DVDs that were directly published in this format and are not copies of films and TV broadcasts. They could include training videos, promotional videos, etc.

Standard Form

Name of primary contributor, Initials. (Role of primary contributor). (year). Title of video or DVD [Video cassette (or DVD)]. Place of origin – where the video/DVD was primarily made and released: Name of publishing organisation.



London Borough of Lewisham, & Protimeter plc. (2000). Diagnosing damp: How to investigate the true causes of damp [Video cassette]. London: Spirit Media.

Society of Manufacturing Engineers. (2003). Fundamental manufacturing processes: welding [DVD]. Dearborn, Michigan: Authors.

University of Southampton: Department of Teaching Media. (1988). “Tell me, Mr. Dunstone” [Video cassette]. [Sheffield]: Association of Graduate Careers Advisory Services.

Citation in Text

The clearest example of such an interchange is shown here (University of Southampton, 1988).

This training video (London Borough of Lewisham, & Protimeter plc, 2000) contains all of the elements necessary for …

When welding a curved joint (Society of Manufacturing Engineers, 2003) it is necessary ...


  • Note that in the first example the place of publication is in square brackets because the information was not derived directly from the source referenced.
  • If there is no indication of an individual contributor, then the organisation responsible for making the video may be placed in the author position in the reference.