Music: live performance [from Direct communication using APA 5th ed.]


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Live performances of music are not recoverable, so cannot be added to your reference list. If what you have listened to is a recording of a live performance you can reference the recording (see separate page) because the recording is recoverable. However, you can cite a live performance in your text, and could include the work, artists, location of the performance and the date.

Standard Form

Not applicable

Citation in Text

When Otto Klemperer conducted Beethoven's Fidelio at Covent Garden in 1967, the performance was characterized by ...

... performance of a song by Noel Gallagher, by Oasis at the Wembley Arena in 1997 ...