The Referencing@Portsmouth interactive guide helps you to reference your sources correctly. Please read our overview page before using this service.

The Referencing@Portsmouth interactive guide helps you reference sources correctly based on published style guides and local practice.

Which Reference Style Should I Use?

Most departments at Portsmouth use the APA 6th ed. style. Exceptions include:

  • If writing about law, or for a qualifying law degree, and asked for footnotes use the OSCOLA style
  • The School of Pharmacy & Biomedical Sciences uses the Vancouver style
  • History units taught in the School of Social, Historical & Literary Studies use the Chicago 16th ed. style. Guidance is available from The Chicago Manual of Style Online.
  • Biology related subjects use a slightly altered version of the APA style

Check your course/unit handbook if unsure.

Select a reference source from the dropdown and optionally a specific style & media.


or browse the Table of Contents

Notes on your selection

Legal cases, of which the source may be law reports or transcripts, legislation such as statutes (also known as Acts) and statutory instruments. Do not use for case notes or case commentaries (treat these as articles) or Parliamentary material such as bills, command papers, explanantory notes to statutes (Acts) or debates from Hansard.