Conference paper: published [from Electronic source using APA 6th ed.]


Regular proceedings are much like journals, and the format used is basically the same. You will need to quote the DOI (Digital Object Identifier) if there is one; otherwise use the internet address.  A DOI is a unique alphanumeric string assigned by a registration agency to identify content and provide a persistent link to its location on the internet. All DOI numbers begin with 10 and contain a prefix and suffix separated by a slash. The DOI is typically located on the first page of a journal article. If there is no DOI, give the web address (or URL) of the journal article.

A URL (Uniform Resource Locator) is the technical term for a webpage address. URLs can change, for example if the material you are viewing is generated 'on-the-fly' using content management software. URLs from these sites may be only viewable at the time of retrieval.

Whenever possible the URL you give should be a stable URL and link directly to the webpage itself. A stable URL, also known as a 'permalink' will not be generated 'on-the-fly' and is more likely to remain accessible. To check if a link to a URL is stable, paste the link into the address bar of an Internet browser to make sure that it works. If there is no stable URL for the item, give the URL of the conference proceedings homepage.

Although you must give the full web address (or URL) in your reference list, you do not show this in the body of your essay. Your in-text reference must match the start of the reference for that webpage as it appears in your reference list. Use the author of the webpage if your reference has one; otherwise use the first few words of the webpage title.

Standard Form

One-off conference

Author, Initials. (year, month day). Title of paper. Paper presented at title of conference meeting or symposium. Retrieved from web address

Regular proceedings

Author, Initials. (year). Title of paper. Title of the Proceedings, volume number, first page number-last page number. doi:digital object identifier or web address


6th ed. Regular proceedings

Barry, E., & Dogic, Z. (2008). Entropy driven self-assembly of nonamphiphilic colloidal membranes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 107, 10348-10353. doi:10.1073/pnas.1000406107

6th ed. One-off conference

Cutler, L. D., Frölich, B., & Hanrahan, P. (1997, January 16). Two-handed direct manipulation on the responsive workbench. Paper presented at the 1997 Symposium on Interactive 3D Graphics. Retrieved from

Kirkpatrick, C., & George, C. (2006, March 22). Assessing the impact of trade SIAs [Draft]. Paper presented at the Trade Sustainability Impact Assessment Stocktaking Conference: Implementing Sustainable Trade, Brussels. Retrieved from

Citation in Text

... humans distribute work between their two hands (Cutler, Frolich, & Hanrahan, 1997, p. 12) ...

... evaluation of SIAs (Kirkpatrick & George, 2006, p. 8) is undertaken ...


  • Note that one of the examples is a draft, and may not be the paper as delivered. This should be noted. It is also in PDF format, but as there is no evidence that it has been published on paper, it is treated as an electronic source, rather that an electronic version of a print source.
  • If there are numbered pages in the web document, these may be used in the in-text citation. Otherwise you may be able to specify your reference by using numbered paragraphs, or section headings.