Streaming video [from Electronic source using APA 6th ed.]


This includes YouTube videos, TED talks, recorded webinars etc. For the purposes of retrieval, the person or organisation who posted the video is credited as the author.  If the person's real name and user name are both available, provide the real name followed by the user name inside brackets.  Otherwise, include only the user name, without brackets.

Webpages can be volatile and subject to unannounced change. Therefore, it is important include the internet address (or URL) for the webpage you accessed, as it may not be at that location when your work is assessed. A URL (Uniform Resource Locator) is the technical term for a webpage address. URLs can change, for example if the material you are viewing is generated 'on-the-fly' using content management software. URLs from these sites may be only viewable at the time of retrieval.

Whenever possible the URL you give should be a stable URL and link directly to the webpage itself. A stable URL, also known as a 'permalink' will not be generated 'on-the-fly' and is more likely to remain accessible. To check if a link to a URL is stable, paste the link into the address bar of an Internet browser to make sure that it works. If there is no stable URL for the item, give the homepage e.g.

Reference as for an ordinary webpage, but add [Video file] immediately after the title.

Although you must give the full web address (or URL) in your reference list, you do not show this in the body of your essay. Your in-text reference must match the start of the reference as it appears in your reference list. Use the author if your reference has one; otherwise use the first few words of the title.

Standard Form

Author, Initials. [User name]. (year, month day). Title of video [Video file]. Retrieved from web address

User name. (year, month day). Title of video [Video file]. Retrieved from web address


Associated Press. (2008). Demo outside EU business summit on corporate 'green washing' [Video file]. Retrieved from

Product Life Cycle. (n.d.). Marketing mix: Place strategies [Video file]. Retrieved from

VOAvideo. (2008, May 30). Library of Congress exhibit explores early Americas [Video file]. Retrieved from

Citation in Text

... early American objects (VOAvideo, 2008) exhibit many characteristics ...

... place strategies are an important aspect of marketing (Product Life Cycle, n.d.) ...


  • If no date is shown on the document, use n.d.
  • If the author is not given, begin your reference with the title of the document.
  • If the title is missing, described the document inside square brackets after the date [Description of document].
  • If a whole YouTube channel is being referenced, you can use [YouTube channel] instead of [Video file].
  • If a document is part of a large website such as that for a university or government department, give the name of the parent organization and the relevant department before the web address:

Alexander, J., & Tate, M. A. (2001). Evaluating web resources. Retrieved August 21, 2001, from Widener University, Wolfgram Memorial Library website:

  • The title of the YouTube video has been used as the main identifier, as the person(s) posting the item may not be the creators of it.
  • The Associated Press example is from the Associated Press Collection of videos available on the Discovery Service.