Public communication [from Direct communication using APA 6th ed.]


Examples include a speech, transcript, lecture, seminar and announcement.

If the text of the communication is available as a print or electronic resource, and is recoverable, then this is what should be referenced. However, if the communication is not recoverable it should be treated like a personal communication, and not included in the reference list. It can be cited in the text.

A speech, transcript, lecture, seminar or announcement available on the web is recoverable (published) using the web address (or URL) and should be referenced as a webpage or a video as appropriate

Standard Form

Not applicable

Citation in Text

In a recent speech (October 25, 2006) Tony Brown told the Labour Party that ...

In a lecture in the Portsmouth Business School (October 9, 2006) Professor Merlin Stone stated that contact centres were ...


  • There is the question whether this is the best sort of material to refer to in your work. Are there recoverable sources which make the same point more authoritatively?