Map [from Electronic source using APA 6th ed.]


This source is not covered by the APA style manual. Check with your lecturer before using this suggestion which is based on APA style.

When an electronic map is sourced from a webpage then, whenever possible, the URL you give should be a stable URL and link directly to the webpage itself. A stable URL, also known as a 'permalink' will not be generated 'on-the-fly' and is more likely to remain accessible. To check if a link to a URL is stable, paste the link into the address bar of an Internet browser to make sure that it works. If there is no stable URL for the item, give the homepage of the website.

Although you must give the full web address (or URL) in your reference list, you do not show this in the body of your essay. Your in-text reference must match the start of the reference as it appears in your reference list. Use the author if your reference has one; otherwise use the first few words of the title.

Any reference needs to be recoverable, which is straightforward for static maps, but is more complicated for computer generated maps. With a Google Earth map, for example, you will need to quote the geographic coordinates, the eye altitude and the date of the original imagery.

Standard Form

Author, initials (may be cartographer, mapping agency, etc.). (year). Title (if not supplied, provide an appropriate title in square brackets), scale, [map]. Retrieved from web address


Central Intelligence Agency. (n.d.). China pysiography, 1:30,000,000, [PDF map]. Retrieved from

Google earth. (2013, October 4). V Nile Delta, [map], 30° 45’ 10.45” N, 31° 09’ 01.79” W, Eye alt 345.80 km. Retrieved from

Google. (2014). [Covent Garden Market], [map]. Retrieved from,-0.122726,19z?hl=en

Scottish Natural Heritage. (2014). Mapping Scotland’s wilderness map 1 – perceived naturalness, [PDF map]. Retrieved from

Sherren, D.J. (2012). Broad Street, Old Portsmouth, 1:2,500, [TIFF map], OS County Series 1:2,500 1st Revision, 1898. Retrieved from

Sherren, D.J. (2014). Gunwharf Quays, 1:1,250, [PNG map], OS MasterMap [geospatial data], updated March 2014. Retrieved from

United States Geological Survey. (2013). Pie Town Quadrangle New Mexico- Catron Co., 1:24,000, [PDF map]. Retrieved from

Citation in Text

The location of Covent Garden Market can be seen using Google Maps (Google, 2014).

The map (Scottish Natural Heritage, 2014) clearly shows high values in the Cairngorms.


  • Please note that when the map has a corporate author, the term Author is used in place of the name of the publisher, following the APA convention for books.
  • If no date appears on the item you are trying to reference, insert (n.d.) where you would normally give the year.
  • If the map does not have a title then provide an appropriate title that describes the map. Do not italicize the title. Enclose the title with square brackets to indicate that this is a description of the content, not a title.
  • The scale, if it is indicated on the map, should be shown as a representative fraction.
  • If a document is part of a large website such as that for a university or government department, give the name of the parent organization and the relevant department before the web address.