Webpage [from Electronic source using OSCOLA]


If you are referencing something from a webpage which is not available as a discrete document, you need to consider that webpages can be volatile and subject to unannounced change. Therefore, it is important include the internet address (or URL) for the webpage you accessed, as it may not be at that location when your work is assessed. A URL (Uniform Resource Locator) is the technical term for a webpage address. URLs can change, for example if the material you are viewing is generated 'on-the-fly' using content management software. URLs from these sites may be only viewable at the time of retrieval.

Whenever possible the URL you give should be a stable URL and link directly to the webpage itself. A stable URL, also known as a 'permament link' will not be generated 'on-the-fly' and is more likely to remain accessible. To check if a link to a URL is stable, paste the link into the address bar of an Internet browser to make sure that it works. If there is no stable URL for the item, give the homepage of the website. It is recommended that whenever possible, you access information from a stable source such as a database rather than a webpage or website.

 Wikipedia is banned as a source by some departments.

Standard Form

As a footnote:

Author, 'Title' (Type of document if relevant, date of issue if available) <Web address> accessed date.


'Diana, Princess of Wales' (Wikipedia article, 9 November 2006) <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Princess_Diana> accessed 13 February 2006.

'Library of Congress Exhibit Explores Early Americas' (Youtube video, 2008) <http://uk.youtube.com/watch?v=eF704BwzZAA> accessed 6 June 2008.

BBC News, 'Call to Stop Children Drinking' (27 April 2007) <http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/uk/6596515.stm> accessed 21 August 2008.

N Banks, 'The NHS Direct Healthcare Guide' <http://www.healthcareguide.nhsdirect.nhs.uk> accessed 29 August 2001.

University of Portsmouth: Careers Service, 'Deciding your Future' (2000) <http://port.ac.uk/departments/careers/plancareer/deciding-your-future.htm> accessed 5 September 2001.

Reference List

List webpages alphabetically under the heading Secondary Sources.


  • If no person, organisation or institution claims responsibility for the work, begin the footnote with the title.
  • If there is no date of publication on the website, give only the date of access.
  • Where possible, try to find a corporate author which takes editorial responsibility for the site. Where this is clearly impossible e.g. Wikipedia, Youtube sites, you may wish to consider if this is an adequate source for your purposes.
  • Reference: Faculty of Law, University of Oxford, OSCOLA: Oxford Standard for the Citation of Legal Authorities (4th edn Oxford University 2010) 42.