Lecture notes or PowerPoint slides [from Electronic source using APA 6th ed.]


Sites such as SlideShare have increased in popularity, and the guidance below shows how to reference lecture notes or slides published on the web. However, where lecture notes or slides are available only from a lecturer, via Moodle, or from someone who took notes during a lecture, reference this a personal communication, as it is non-recoverable material.


Standard Form

Author, Initials. (year). Title of presentation [Lecture notes] or [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from web address


Clare, A. (2014). Gamification for learning and development [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from http://www.slideshare.net/WeroCreative/gamification-for-learning-and-development-ccce-presentation

Robison, A. (2007). Lecture 21: Embodied cognition [Lecture notes]. Retrieved from Massachusetts Institute of Technology OpenCourseWare website: http://ocw.mit.edu/courses/comparative-media-studies/cms-998-new-media-literacies-spring-2007/lecture-notes/

Citation in Text

According to Clare, (2014), "exstrinsic motivation works 50% of the time" ...


  • Give the name of the website to which the lecture notes or slides were posted when that information is not obvious from the URL or author name.