E-book translated into English: different from print version [from Electronic source using APA 6th ed.]
If an English translation of a non-English work is used as a source, reference the English translation. Use the English form of the title, and include the date of publication of the original work.
Some e-books which can be downloaded onto a computer or mobile device have different page numbering from the print version, e.g. e-books from the Project Gutenburg website, Kindle books, Apple iBooks etc. Many electronic sources do not provide page numbers. If paragraph numbers are visible, use them in place of page numbers (using the abbreviation para.), e.g. para. 582. Alternatively, cite the chapter or section, followed by the paragraph number (if appropriate) e.g. Chapter 4, para. 3).
Whenever possible the URL you give should be a stable URL and link directly to the webpage itself. A stable URL, also known as a 'permalink' will not be generated 'on-the-fly' and is more likely to remain accessible. To check if a link to a URL is stable, paste the link into the address bar of an Internet browser to make sure that it works.
The Discovery Service provides a permanent link known as a 'Permalink' for each item in its index, including those in HTML format. To see the Permalink, click on the title of the item and look under Tools on the right-hand-side of the screen where you will see a Permalink link. Click on this link and the URL will be displayed for you to copy and paste into your reference.
Although you must give the full web address (or URL) in your reference list, you do not show this in the body of your essay. Your in-text reference must match the start of the reference as it appears in your reference list. Use the author if your reference has one; otherwise use the first few words of the title.
Author, Initials. (year of translation). Title of book (Initials, Translator, Trans., Edition if later than first e.g. 3rd ed.)[e-book version if known]. Retrieved from web address (Original work published Year of original)
Author, Initials., Author 2, Initials., & Author 3, Initials. (year of translation). Title of book (Initials, Translator, Trans., Edition if later than first e.g. 3rd ed.)[e-book version if known]. Retrieved from web address (Original work published Year of original)
Swedenborg, E. (1851). Angelic wisdom about divine providence (W. Wunch, Trans.). Retrieved from http://www.gutenberg.org/files/18507/18507.txt (Original work published 1764)
Citation in Text
In the text, cite the original publication date as well as the date of the translation:
Swedeneborg (1851/1764, Section 162(3)) asserts that the simple and wise speak the same language but think differently ...
- Where the translation is in a second or later edition, the year of translation given should be the year of the edition used, as it would be with an untranslated book.
- If the online version refers to a print edition, include the edition number after the title inside brackets. Otherwise, leave out this part of the reference.
- List up to seven authors in the reference. For eight or more authors, include the first six authors' names, then insert an ellipsis ( . . . ), and add the last author's name.
Citing multiple authors in the text of your work:
With two authors both names should be listed in each citation e.g. (Duncan & Goddard, 2003, p. 99).
With three to five authors, name all authors the first time, then use et al. (and others). For example: the first time it would be (Moore, Estrich, McGillis, & Spelman, 1984, p. 33) and subsequent references to the same publication would use (Moore et al., 1984, p. 33).
Note that when the in-text reference occurs naturally within the sentence "and" should be used before the final author. But when the entire reference is enclosed in brackets the ampersand (&) should be used.