Academic journal article: same as print version [from Electronic source using Vancouver]


There is much contradictory advice on quoting electronic media. The information below is simplified from the NLM "Citing medicine" website at Check any departmental guidance that might have been drawn up.

The basic pattern is similar to the printed examples but with some important additions.

Standard Form

Author(s) of article and Initials. Title of article. Journal title [type of medium]. Year month [note of any update/revision dates; cited date];Volume(part or issue number):start page-end page. Available from: URL or DOI


Morse SS. Factors in the emergence of infectious diseases. Emerg Infect Dis [Internet]. 1995 Jan-Mar [cited 2007 Jul 9];1(1):[24 screens]. Available from

Sakthivel P, Shively V, Kakoulidou M, Pearce W. Lefvert AK. The soluble forms of CD28, CD86, and CTLA-4 constitute possible immunological markers in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm [Internet].J Intern Med 2007 Apr [cited 2008 Aug 8];261(4):399-407. Available from DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2796.2007.01773.x

Citation in Text

Remember this will be a running number at the first use of a reference. If the reference is re-used then repeat the number allocated. Keep your style constant, either parenthesis (number) throughout, or superscript number. Do not change between the two. If your department recommends a particular style then use that.


  • Remember to check that your URL link does work. If it doesn't, then provide the closest working link and instructions for finding the article.
  • If there is no pagination give a number of [x screens], or approximation of pages [about x p] or [about x paragraphs]
  • DOI (Digital object identifier) are intended to give a persistent link to an article. An internet search for this number prefixed with should call up a link to the article, although these may well carry an access charge.
  • If no date appears on the item you are trying to reference, insert [date unknown] where you would normally give the year.