Television: single episode from a series [from Audio visual source using OSCOLA]


The general principles for ‘other secondary sources’ (section 3.4.1) suggest the following form.

If there is no clear author, give the organisation providing the source as the author.


Standard Form

As a footnote:

Name of primary contributor - the Director or Producer or Production Company [Role of primary contributor], 'Title of programme' [Television series episode] in Name of producer/s [Producer], Title of series (Additional information if required, Publisher, Year )

If referring to comments by someone in particular, add that information as you would a pinpoint, before the url. Include the person's position if relevant or particularly if the podcast is quite long, would be to provide the minutes and seconds of the excerpt


Charles Stewart [Director], 'Complaint of Rape' [Television series episode] in Roger Graef [Producer], Police (BBC 1982).

Films of Record [Production Company], 'Rape on Trial' [Television series episode] in Panorama (BBC 2006).

Reference List

List television programmes alphabetically by the first primary contributor's surname under the heading Secondary Sources.

In your bibliography, the primary contributor's surname should precede his or her initial(s), with no comma separating them, but a comma after the first initial. Only initials should be used, not forenames, e.g.

Stewart C [Director], 'Complaint of Rape' [Television series episode] in Roger Graef [Producer], Police (BBC 1982).



  • Tracing the details needed for a reference after the broadcast can be difficult. The best source of information is TRILT (Television and Radio Index for Learning and Teaching) which gives details of television and radio programmes schedules from 2001 onwards for over 330 different channels plus a substantial selection of terrestrial television programmes back to 1995.

This source is not covered by the OSCOLA style manual. Suggestions on this page are modelled on FAQs on the OSCOLA website ( but have not yet been discussed and approved by the OSCOLA editorial board.