Personal communication [from Direct communication using OSCOLA]


Examples include a letter, memo, unarchived online forum, and telephone conversation.

Give the author and recipient of the communication, and the date. If you are the author or the recipient, say 'from author' or 'to author' as appropriate.

Standard Form

Type of personal communication from author to recipient (day month year).


Email from Jo Bloggs to John Doe (26 January 2007).

Letter from Jo Bloggs to John Doe (11 March 2008).

Reference List

Personal communication cannot be considered to be 'recoverable data', therefore you cannot list it in your bibliography. However, you may refer to them in text and can give relevant details in yor footnote.


  • Consider the ethical implications of privacy and if relying on such evidence obtain consent from the original author to reproduce relevant items in part or whole as appendices.
  • Reference: Faculty of Law, University of Oxford, OSCOLA: Oxford Standard for the Citation of Legal Authorities (4th edn Oxford University 2010) 43.