Academic journal article: same as print version [from Electronic source using APA 6th ed.]
This includes sources which are in PDF format.
You will need to quote the DOI (Digital Object Identifier) if there is one; otherwise use the internet address. A DOI is a unique alphanumeric string assigned by a registration agency to identify content and provide a persistent link to its location on the internet. All DOI numbers begin with 10 and contain a prefix and suffix separated by a slash. The DOI is typically located on the first page of a journal article. If there is no DOI, give the web address (or URL) of the journal article.
A URL (Uniform Resource Locator) is the technical term for a webpage address. URLs can change, for example if the material you are viewing is generated 'on-the-fly' using content management software. URLs from these sites may be only viewable at the time of retrieval.
Whenever possible the URL you give should be a stable URL and link directly to the webpage itself. A stable URL, also known as a 'permament link' will not be generated 'on-the-fly' and is more likely to remain accessible. To check if a link to a URL is stable, paste the link into the address bar of an Internet browser to make sure that it works.
The Discovery Service provides a permanent link known as a 'Permalink' for each item in its index, including those in HTML format. To see the Permalink, click on the title of the item and look under Tools on the right-hand-side of the screen where you will see a Permalink link. Click on this link and the URL will be displayed for you to copy and paste into your reference.
If there is no stable URL for the item, give the URL of the database or journal homepage. Do not include the name of the database.
Although you must give the full web address (or URL) in your reference list, you do not show this in the body of your essay. Your in-text reference must match the start of the reference as it appears in your reference list. Use the author if your reference has one; otherwise use the first few words of the title.
Article with DOI
Author, Initials. (year). Title of article. Title of Journal, Volume number(Issue number), start and end page numbers of article. http://dx.doi.org/number of digital object identifier
Article without DOI
Author, Initials. (year). Title of article. Title of Journal, Volume number(Issue number), start and end page numbers of article. Retrieved from web address
Lussier, R. N., & Pfeifer, S. (2001). A crossnational prediction model for business success. Journal of Small Business Management, 39(3), 228-239. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/0447-2778.00021
Peltzer, J., Carpentier, G., Martelly, I., Courty, J., & Keller, A. (2010). Transitions towards either slow-oxidative or fast-glycolytic phenotype can be induced in the murine WTt myogenic cell line. Journal of Celllular Biochemistry. Advance online publication. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcb.22665
Phillips, L. R. (2000). Domestic violence and aging women. Geriatric Nursing, 21(4), 188-193. http://dx.doi.org/10.1067/mgn.2000.109584
Advance online publication
If you are referencing an advance release version of an article, insert Advance online publication before the retrieval statement. Articles in this format may not yet have been given volume, issue or page numbers. If no DOI is assigned and you used the electronic version of the article, give the URL of the database or journal publisher homepage:
Alibhai, S.M.H., Zukotynski, K., Walker-Dilks, C., Emmenegger, U., Finelli, A., Morgan, S.C., Hotte, S.J., Winquist, E., & Cancer Care Ontario Genitourinary Cancer Disease Site Group. (2017). Bone health and bone-targeted therapies for prostrate cancer: A programme in evidence-based care - cancer care Ontario clinical practice guideline. Clinical Oncology. Advance online publication. http://www.sciencedirect.com
In-press or post-print article
Ellis, T., Green, S., Jung, J., & Lee, J. (2017). Vulnerability, risk and agroterrorism: An exmaination of international strategy and its relevance for the Republic of Korea. Crime Prevention and Community Safety. http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/s41300-016-0013-0
Article from an institutional repository
Polee, M. B. (2004). Chemotherapy in oesophageal cancer. Retrieved from http://repub.eur.nl/pub/40287
Lussier, R. N., & Pfeifer, S. (2001). A crossnational prediction model for business success. Journal of Small Business Management, 39(3), 228-239. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=5386312&site=eds-live
Ki-Moon, B. (2006). For permanent peace. Harvard International Review, 28(2), 24-25. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=21684953&site=eds-live
Citation in Text
... focus on attempts to resolve the nuclear issue (Ki-Moon, 2006, p.4).
It has been found (Lussier & Pfeifer, 2001, p. 230) that ...
Phillips (2000, pp. 191-192) states that ...
- If no date appears on the item you are trying to reference, insert (n.d.) where you would normally give the year.
- If there is no identifiable author, begin your reference with the title of the article. Cite the first few words of the article title in the text of your work and use double quotation marks around the title.
- Articles may be supplied as copyright-cleared scans of a printed article. Use this style for scans of this type. Use the pagination of the original.
- For the reference in your reference list, include up to seven authors. For eight or more authors, include the first six authors' names, then insert an ellipsis ( . . . ), and add the last author's name.
Citing multiple authors in the text of your work:
With two authors both names should be listed in each citation e.g. (Duncan & Goddard, 2003, p. 99).
With three to five authors, name all authors the first time, then use et al. (and others). For example: the first time it would be (Moore, Estrich, McGillis, & Spelman, 1984, p. 33) and subsequent references to the same publication would use (Moore et al., 1984, p. 33).
For six or more authors, use et al. after the first author in all occurrences.
Note that when the citation occurs naturally within the sentence "and" should be used before the final author. But when the citation is enclosed in brackets the ampersand (&) should be used.