Newspaper article from a database: different from print version [from Electronic source using APA 6th ed.]


This format is much like that for a general webpage, except that you need to use the complete publication date shown in the article and you need to give the title of the newspaper.

Give the web address (or URL) of the article. A URL (Uniform Resource Locator) is the technical term for a webpage address. URLs can change, for example if the material you are viewing is generated 'on-the-fly' using content management software. URLs from these sites may be only viewable at the time of retrieval.

Whenever possible the URL you give should be a stable URL and link directly to the webpage itself. A stable URL, also known as a 'permalink' will not be generated 'on-the-fly' and is more likely to remain accessible. To check if a link to a URL is stable, paste the link into the address bar of an Internet browser to make sure that it works.

The Discovery Service provides a permanent link known as a 'Permalink' for each item in its index, including those in HTML format.  To see the Permalink, click on the title of the item and look under Tools on the right-hand-side of the screen where you will see a Permalink link. Click on this link and the URL will be displayed for you to copy and paste into your reference.

If there is no stable URL for the item, give the URL of the database or newspaper homepage e.g. for journal articles from the Nexis UK database. Do not include the name of the database.

Although you must give the full web address (or URL) in your reference list, you do not show this in the body of your essay. Your in-text reference must match the start of the reference as it appears in your reference list. Use the author if your reference has one; otherwise use the first few words of the title.

Standard Form

Author, Initials. (year, month day). Title of the article. Title of Newspaper, p. page number [if available]. Retrieved from web address


High consumption of caffeine linked to mental illness. (2006, December 6). New York Times, p. B18. Retrieved from

Young, H. (1996, July 25). Battle of snakes and ladders. The Guardian, p. 15. Retrieved from

Citation in Text

Excessive intake of caffeine ("High consumption of caffeine", 1991, p. B8) has been suggested in a newspaper report to ...

Young (1996. p. 15), in an article, declares ...


  • If no date appears on the item you are trying to reference, insert (n.d.) where you would normally give the year.
  • Named authors (bylines) are sometimes found at the end of newspaper articles.
  • If there is no identifiable author (byline), begin your reference with the title of the article. Cite the first few words of the article title in the text of your work and use double quotation marks around the title.
  • If page numbers are discontinuous, give all page numbers and separate the numbers with a comma.