E-book with author(s): same as print version [from Electronic source using APA 6th ed.]

Overview

This format is for e-books with author(s) which are facsimiles of the printed book. Examples are found in e-book collections such as Ebook Central (formerly ebrary), MyiLibrary, dawsonera, JISC Historic Books, EBSCOhost, Google Books, and Oxford Scholarship Online. E-books can be viewed online, and some can be downloaded onto a computer or mobile device using the Adobe Digital Editions or the Bluefire reader for example.

Many electronic sources do not provide page numbers. If paragraph numbers are visible, use them in place of page numbers (using the abbreviation para.), e.g. para. 582. Alternatively, cite the chapter or section, followed by the paragraph number (if appropriate) e.g. Chapter 4, para. 3). 

You will need to quote the DOI (Digital Object Identifier) if there is one; otherwise use the web address.  A DOI is a unique alphanumeric string assigned by a registration agency to identify content and provide a persistent link to its location on the internet. All DOI numbers begin with 10 and contain a prefix and suffix separated by a slash. If there is no DOI, give the web address (or URL) of the e-book. A URL (Uniform Resource Locator) is the technical term for a webpage address. URLs can change, for example if the material you are viewing is generated 'on-the-fly' using content management software. URLs from these sites may be only viewable at the time of retrieval.

Whenever possible the URL you give should be a stable URL and link directly to the webpage itself. A stable URL, also known as a 'permalink' will not be generated 'on-the-fly' and is more likely to remain accessible. To check if a link to a URL is stable, paste the link into the address bar of an Internet browser to make sure that it works. For books from online collections such as ebrary, MyiLibrary, dawsonera and Google Books, give the web address of the e-book collection homepage rather than the full URL of the e-book.

The Discovery Service provides a permanent link known as a 'Permalink' for each item in its index, including those in HTML format.  To see the Permalink, click on the title of the item and look under Tools on the right-hand-side of the screen where you will see a Permalink link. Click on this link and the URL will be displayed for you to copy and paste into your reference.

Although you must give the full web address (or URL) in your reference list, you do not show this in the body of your essay. Your in-text reference must match the start of the reference as it appears in your reference list. Use the author(s) if your reference has one; otherwise use the first few words of the title.

Standard Form

E-book with DOI

Single author:
Author, Initials. (year). Title of book (Edition if later than first e.g. 3rd ed.). http://dx.doi.org/number of digital object identifier

Multiple authors:
Author, Initials., Author 2, Initials., & Author 3, Initials. (year). Title of book (Edition if later than first e.g. 3rd ed.). http://dx.doi.org/number of digital object identifier

E-book without DOI viewed online in Ebook Central (formely ebrary), MyiLibrary etc.

Single author:
Author, Initials. (year). Title of book (Edition if later than first e.g. 3rd ed.). Retrieved from web address

Multiple authors:
Author, Initials., Author 2, Initials., & Author 3, Initials. (year). Title of book (Edition if later than first e.g. 3rd ed.). Retrieved from web address

E-book downloaded using Adobe Digital Editions, Bluefire etc.

Single author:
Author, Initials. (year). Title of book (Edition if later than first e.g. 3rd ed.)[e-book version if known]. Retrieved from web address

Multiple authors:
Author, Initials., Author 2, Initials., & Author 3, Initials. (year). Title of book (Edition if later than first e.g. 3rd ed.) [e-book version if known]. Retrieved from web address

Examples

E-book with DOI

Ho, C. (2011). Access to medicine in the global economy: International agreements on patents and related rights. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195390124.001.0001

Lettmaier, S. (2010). Broken engagements: The action for breach of promise of marriage and the feminine ideal, 1800-1940. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199569977

E-book without DOI viewed online in EBook Central (formely ebrary), MyiLibrary etc.

Armitage, A., Bryant, R., Dunnill, R., Flannagan, K., Hayes, D., Hudson, A., et al. (2007). Teaching and training in post-compulsory education. Retrieved from http://lib.myilibrary.com

Baines, P., Egan, J., & Jefkins, F. (2003). Public relations: Contemporary issues and techniques. Retrieved from http://www.dawsonera.com

Bassnett, S. (2002).  Translation studies (3rd ed.).  Retrieved from http://books.google.co.uk

Kozlowski, A. L., Dormandy, A. T. J., Brzezinski, X., Algieri, Z., Feigenbaum, F., & Evan, A. (2008). Global powers in the 21st century. Retrieved from http://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/portsmouth-ebooks

Gelsthorpe, L., Padfield, N, & Phillips, J. (2012). Deaths on probation: An analysis of data regarding people dying under probation supervision. Retrieved from http://www.howardleague.org/fileadmin/howard_league/user/online_publications/Deaths_on_probation.pdf

Smith, A. H. (1899). Village life in China: A study in sociology. Retrieved from http://historicaltexts.jisc.ac.uk/

E-book downloaded using Adobe Digital Editions, Bluefire etc.

Shukla, S. (2010). Professional communication [Adobe Digital Editions version]. Retrieved from http://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/portsmouth-ebooks

Citation in Text

... avoid replacing the teacher with the resources (Armitage et al., 2007, p. 109).

So many people have subsequently disagreed with this assessment (Booth, 2011, p. 146) that an element of auto-critique ...

One of the effects of September 11th (Brzezinski, 2004, p. 17) was to ...

Lettmaier (2010, p. 54) asserts that marriage ....

 

Notes

  • If you have a chapter of a book supplied as a copyright-cleared scan, use this style for an authored book, or adapt this style to that for a chapter in an edited book, if that is what you have used. Use the pagination of the original.

  • If the online version refers to a print edition, include the edition number after the title inside brackets.  Otherwise, leave out this part of the reference.

  • List up to seven authors in the reference. For eight or more authors, include the first six authors' names, then insert an ellipsis ( . . . ), and add the last author's name.

Citing multiple authors in the text of your work:

  • With two authors both names should be listed in each citation e.g. (Duncan & Goddard, 2003, p. 99).

  • With three to five authors, name all authors the first time, then use et al. (and others). For example: the first time it would be (Moore, Estrich, McGillis, & Spelman, 1984, p. 33) and subsequent references to the same publication would use (Moore et al., 1984, p. 33).

  • Note that when the in-text reference occurs naturally within the sentence "and" should be used before the final author. But when the entire reference is enclosed in brackets the ampersand (&) should be used.